Saturday, 30 September 2017

Who invented headphones?

Image result for first headphones
pic credits:coolmaterial

The first headphones were invented by American engineer Nathaniel Baldwin in 1910. His invention was the end result of experimentation with the principle of sound amplification by compressed air. Baldwin patented and then sold his invention to the U.S. Navy.

Nathaniel Baldwin.  The inventor of the modern headphone.  He invented this device in 1910 and sold it to the US Navy.  He later started a radio factory called The Baldwin Radio Company.  Where would Setcom be without him?

The sensitivity of Baldwin's headset, tested by engineers of the Radio Division of the Navy, was twice that of others on the market at the time. His manufacturing output of the devices was limited, however, as he hand-built every headphone set the Navy ordered at his kitchen table. They were superior in quality to alternatives at the time, so the Navy accepted his limited output.


Wednesday, 27 September 2017

20 Things You Didn't Know About... Fire

Fire makes water. Fire is a tree running in reverse. Fire is not a thing at all

By Leeaundra Keany

pc: pavelk / Shutterstock

1  Fire is an event, not a thing. Heating wood or other fuel releases volatile vapors that can rapidly combust with oxygen in the air; the resulting incandescent bloom of gas further heats the fuel, releasing more vapors and perpetuating the cycle.
2  Most of the fuels we use derive their energy from trapped solar rays. In photosynthesis, sunlight and heat make chemical energy (in the form of wood or fossil fuel); fire uses chemical energy to produce light and heat.
3  So a bonfire is basically a tree running in reverse.
4  Assuming stable fuel, heat, and oxygen levels, a typical house fire will double in size every minute.
5  Earth is the only known planet where fire can burn. Everywhere else: Not enough oxygen.
6  Conversely, the more oxygen, the hotter the fire. Air is 21 percent oxygen; combine pure oxygen with acetylene, a chemical relative of methane, and you get an oxyacetylene welding torch that burns at over 5,500 degrees Fahrenheit—the hottest fire you are likely to encounter.
7  Oxygen supply influences the color of the flame. A low-oxygen fire contains lots of uncombusted fuel particles and will give off a yellow glow. A high-oxygen fire burns blue.
8  So candle flames are blue at the bottom because that’s where they take up fresh air, and yellow at the top because the rising fumes from below partly suffocate the upper part of the flame.
9  Fire makes water? It’s true. Place a cold spoon over a candle and you will observe the water vapor condense on the metal...
10 ...because wax—like most organic materials, including wood and gasoline—contains hydrogen, which bonds with oxygen to make H2O when it burns. Water comes out your car’s tailpipe, too.
11  We’ve been at this a long time: Charred bones and wood ash indicate that early hominids were tending the first intentional fires more than 400,000 years ago.
12  Nature’s been at it awhile, too. A coal seam about 140 miles north of Sydney, Australia, has been burning by some estimates for 500,000 years.
13  The ancient Greeks started fire with concentrated sunlight. A parabolic mirror that focuses solar rays is still used to ignite the Olympic torch.
14  Every 52 years, when their calendar completed a cycle, the Aztecs would extinguish every flame in the empire. The high priest would start a new fire on the ripped-open chest of a sacrificial victim. Fires fed from this flame would be distributed throughout the land.
15  Good burn: The 1666 Great Fire of London destroyed 80 percent of the city but also ended an outbreak of bubonic plague that had killed more than 65,000 people the previous year. The fire fried the rats and fleas that carried Yersinia pestis, the plague-causing bacterium.
16  The Peshtigo Fire in Wisconsin was the second deadliest blaze in United States history, taking 1,200 lives—four times as many as the Great Chicago Fire. Both conflagrations broke out on the same day: October 8, 1871.
17  America’s deadliest fire took place April 27, 1865, aboard the steamship Sultana. Among other passengers were 1,500 recently released Union prisoners traveling home up the Mississippi when the boilers exploded. The ship was six times over capacity, which helps explain the death toll of 1,547.
18  The Black Dragon Fire of 1987, the largest wildfire in modern times, burned some 20 million acres across China and the Soviet Union, an area about the size of South Carolina.
19  Spontaneous combustion is real. Some fuel sources can generate their own heat—by rotting, for instance. Pistachios have so much natural oil and are so prone to heat-generating fat decomposition that the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code regards them as dangerous.
20  Haystacks, compost heaps, and even piles of old newspapers and magazines can also burst into flame. A good reason to recycle DISCOVER when you are done.

Source: discovermagazine

Monday, 25 September 2017


 Whats is GPS?

 How does it work?

 Technology GPS transport Use tracking

Pic credits: shutter stock

What is GPS?

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.[1] The system provides critical capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world. The United States government created the system, maintains it, and makes it freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.

How does it work?

A GPS Tracking Solution is the combination of a GPS tracker device, a monitoring software and server.

GPS Tracker: It is the tracking device which is installed in the vehicle and after installing it sends all the vehicle data to the software.

Monitoring Software: When a GPS tracker sends the vehicle data, it stores in the monitoring software. The software can be installed in admin’s system. By using this software the fleet admin can access all the information and sees it from anywhere, anytime.

Servers: Servers are those networks which is used for transformation of vehicle data from device to monitoring software.

Well these functions may perform differently from device to device. There are many GPS tracking devices are available in the market and these three parts are common in each solution.

GPS tracking devices are of two types:

Active GPS Tracking: Active GPS tracking solution is that in which the vehicle operator can see the data in the real time. The operator can track the vehicle in the real time and find out the position and speed of the car.

Passive GPS Tracking: In passive GPS tracking solution, all the information about the vehicle stored in the software and the admin can see this data weekly or monthly as required. In this type real time access of the vehicle information is not possible.


Sunday, 17 September 2017


Whats echo?

Image result for define echo


Generally everyone knows that its nothing but reflection of sound.Lets see whats it in detail but briefly. 

                                                                    Matter is made up of so many particles and atoms echo is due to vibration of sound in matter. This matter vibrates and brings back the sound to our ear.

When you shout in a hollow room the sound travels away from the source(mouth) there by disturbing particles in the air and hits the wall and again reflects back. This is how sound echoes.Sound travel with 350m/s in the air. Even when the sound is vibrating away still you can hear the sound a distant away.

Its nature’s gift for having all the gas particles, dusts, matter and atoms for vibrating. If not we can’t hear sound.

Saturday, 16 September 2017



Heat is the opposite of cold. In thermodynamics heat means energy which is moved between two things when one of them is hotter than the other.

Adding heat to something increases its temperature, but heat is not the same as temperature.The temperature of an object is a measure of the average speed of the moving particles in it. The energy of the particles is called the internal energy When an object is heated, its internal energy can increase to make the object hotter. The first law of thermodynamics says that the increase in internal energy is equal to the heat added minus the work done on the surroundings.

Thermal energy is the type of energy that a thing has because of its temperature. In thermodynamics, thermal energy is the internal energy present in a system in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium because of its temperature.That is, heat is defined as a spontaneous flow of energy (energy in transit) from one object to another, caused by a difference in temperature between two objects; so objects do not possess heat.

Properties of Heat:

Heat is a form of energy and not a physical substance.Heat has no mass
Heat can move from one place to another in different ways:
·         Conduction
·         Convection
·         Radiation
The measure of how much heat is needed to cause some change in temperature for a material is the specific heat capacity of the material. If the particles in the material are hard to move, then more energy is needed to make them move quickly, so a lot of heat will cause a small change in temperature. A different particle that is easier to move will need less heat for the same change in temperature.
Specific heat capacities can be looked up in a table, like this one.
Unless some work is done, heat moves only from hot things to cold things.

Measuring Heat

Heat can be measured. That is, the amount of heat given out or taken in can be given a value. One of the units of measurement for heat is the joule.Heat is usually measured with a calorimeter, where the energy in a material is allowed to flow into nearby water, which has a known specific heat capacity. The temperature of the water is then measured before and after, and heat can be found using a formula.

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5 Hidden Signs that You Are Highly Intelligent, Backed By Science

All people are different and we each have a personal combination of traits and characteristics that nobody else has. We all have a gift or talent in something, but some people are extremely intelligent.
We have IQ tests but they really have proven not to be an effective measurement of intelligence. Although it might be the closest thing we have right now, there are others ways to determine how intelligent you are. Don’t feel as if you have to be intelligently gifted either; each person is gifted in their own way and intelligence is always obtainable. However, according to science if you display these signs you are highly intelligent. Never stop seeking knowledge!


 Anxiety can be a key indicator for intelligence. Anxious people have been found to be smarter, according to science. One study found that the worse anxiety symptoms a person had, the more intelligent they were.  Another study found that anxious participants were more focused and effective at executing tasks. So if you’re worried about worrying, maybe you don’t have to worry anymore.

Early Reader

Early readers have also been found to be highly intelligent. If you took an interest in reading at a very young age you are probably very smart. A British study found that the earliest one started to read, the smarter they were.

Music Lessons

Studies have also found that people who took music lessons as a child were more intelligently gifted. The musical training enhances intelligence and executive function.


Everyone loves a person with a good sense of humor, many people even believe it to be the number one quality a person can have. It can also indicate intelligence. It’s been shown that being funny and a high verbal intelligence and abstract reasoning is directly related to intelligence.

Dark Humor

Not only does good verbal humor correlate to high intelligence, but dark humor has been found to be too! If you make some morbid jokes every now and then, it’s okay. You might make a room full of people feel rather awkward, but at least it means you’re intelligent right?

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Wednesday, 13 September 2017

What’s A Hurricane?

So What’s A Hurricane?

hurricane or tropical cyclone is a powerful storm that forms in the ocean and causes destruction when it hits land. These monsters are gigantic inward swirling storms, and their winds move at a speed of 75 mph (120 kph) at the least. A hurricane can happen anywhere in the world, but most occur around tropical areas (the mid-Atlantic and Pacific), and form in tropical waters.


Figure 2. View of Hurricane from above the Earth

So many Parts. . .

Although a hurricane may only look like a huge swirling object, it’s a lot more complex than that. For example, in the middle of every hurricane is an open space. That open space is called the “
eye” of the hurricane. This diagram shows the different parts of a hurricane.

ldt.pngFigure 3. Hurricane Parts diagram

The Big Splash

The creation of a hurricane is very complex and fascinating. All through the year, gentle winds circle the earth. These winds form when cold high pressure air from the north and hot low pressure air from the south, collide around the equator, forcing warm air up into the atmosphere. This area is called the 
inter-tropical convergence zone, and is a perfect spot for a hurricane to form.

Meanwhile, the sun bakes the air hovering over the ocean waters. As the air warms up, it rises up into the atmosphere, taking much water vapor with it. This happening is called 
convention. After that, condensation takes place, which is when the air starts to cool and form storm clouds.

There is one last step to forming a hurricane. A wave of hot fast moving air called the 
African-easterly wave gains speed as it races across the continent of Africa. As it moves across the continent, the wave of wind hits mountains, which form little ripples in the wave. As the wave ripples off the African coast, it hits the storm clouds sitting over the tropics, and starts them spinning. As the wind and storm clouds move together, they begin to from a more organized band. If the two become organized enough, a hurricane will form.
After a storm comes a rainbow.

Science Project 1 - Tri 1.jpgFigure 4. Hurricane Formation Diagram

Which Class?

Not every hurricane is exactly the same. Some are larger, some are smaller. Some do more damage than others. They even have different wind speeds. Because of all this, hurricanes are classified. There are five different types of classes. Each hurricane is classified by wind speed, central pressure, and damage potential. Hurricanes that are classified three through five are considered major and are extremely dangerous. Hurricanes classified below that are not as major, but are still very dangerous.


figure 5. Hurricane Classification Chart

Source,credits and courtesy: 



  • Have Have a disaster plan
  • a pet plan. Before a storm threatens, contact your veterinarian or local humane society for information on preparing your pets for an emergency.
  • Board up windows.
  • Bring in outdoor objects that could blow away.
  • Make sure you know which county or parish you live in.
  • Know where all the evacuation routes are.
  • Prepare a disaster supplies kit for your home and car. Have enough food and water for at least 3 days. Include a first aid kit, canned food and a can opener, bottled water, battery-operated radio, flashlight, protective clothing and written instructions on how to turn off electricity, gas, and water.
  • Have a NOAA weather radio handy with plenty of batteries, so you can listen to storm advisories.
  • Have some cash handy. Following a hurricane, banks and ATMs may be temporarily closed.
  • Make sure your car is filled with gasoline.

  • Stay away from low-lying and flood prone areas.
  • Always stay indoors during a hurricane, because strong winds will blow things around.
  • Leave mobile homes and to go to a shelter.
  • If your home isn’t on higher ground, go to a shelter.
  • If emergency managers say to evacuate, then do so immediately.

  • Stay indoors until it is safe to come out.
  • Check for injured or trapped people, without putting yourself in danger.
  • Watch out for flooding which can happen after a hurricane.
  • Do not attempt to drive in flooding water.
  • Stay away from standing water. It may be electrically charged from underground or downed power lines.
  • Don’t drink tap water until officials say its safe to do so.

Tuesday, 12 September 2017

Friction in our daily life

Yes, friction is must and mandatory.

Whats friction?

It is a force which opposses the relative of two surfaces to be in contact.

Image result for free friction in physics pics for commerciAL USE

Imagine a scenario where there is no friction on the ground. You are driving a car and suddenly encounter a child lying on the road. What would happen?

He will be crushed to death.

There is a fluid in our brain that has round motion when we rotate. If there was no friction to stop that fluid from motion in our brain, there would be dizziness whole life, once we start to rotate and finally stop.

Look at the below scenarious if there is no friction:

1.Friction is not a negative thing. It's a positive one.

2.How can you think of walking or running with your legs on the ground?

3.Oh, when there is no friction, forget about running how can you even stand?

There are many things which can be done with the use of friction.
Standing, running, sitting.

Driving a car.

Catching a baby with hands.

Catching a phone to answer this question and many more are the things which can be done only with the help of friction.

Saturday, 9 September 2017

Scientists create fuel using air

Scientists have found a way to produce methanol - an important chemical often used as fuel in vehicles - using oxygen in the air, an advance that may lead to cleaner, greener industrial processes worldwide.

Image result for fuel taking cars pics
pic credits:
Scientists have found a way to produce methanol – an important chemical often used as fuel in vehicles – using oxygen in the air, an advance that may lead to cleaner, greener industrial processes worldwide. Methanol is currently produced by breaking down natural gas at high temperatures into hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide before reassembling them – expensive and energy-intensive processes known as ‘steam reforming’ and ‘methanol synthesis.’ However, researchers from Cardiff University in the UK have discovered they can produce methanol from methane through simple catalysis that allows methanol production at low temperatures using oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The findings, published in the journal Science, have major implications for cleaner, greener industrial processes worldwide. “The quest to find a more efficient way of producing methanol is a hundred years old. Our process uses oxygen – effectively a ‘free’ product in the air around us – and combines it with hydrogen peroxide at mild temperatures which require less energy,” said Graham Hutchings, from the Cardiff Catalysis Institute.

“We have already shown that gold nanoparticles supported by titanium oxide could convert methane to methanol, but we simplified the chemistry further and took away the titanium oxide powder,” said Hutchings. “Commercialisation will take time, but our science has major implications for the preservation of natural gas reserves as fossil fuel stocks dwindle across the world,” he said. “At present global natural gas production is about 2.4 billion tonnes per annum and four per cent of this is flared into the atmosphere – roughly 100 million tonnes,” he said.
“Our approach of using natural gas could use this “waste” gas saving CO2 emissions,” he added.

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