Tuesday, 24 October 2017

Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness

Date:
January 16, 2014
Source:
Elsevier
Summary:
A review and update of a controversial 20-year-old theory of consciousness claims that consciousness derives from deeper level, finer scale activities inside brain neurons. The recent discovery of quantum vibrations in "microtubules" inside brain neurons corroborates this theory, according to review authors. They suggest that EEG rhythms (brain waves) also derive from deeper level microtubule vibrations, and that from a practical standpoint, treating brain microtubule vibrations could benefit a host of mental, neurological, and cognitive conditions.

A review and update of a controversial 20-year-old theory of consciousness published in Physics of Life Reviews claims that consciousness derives from deeper level, finer scale activities inside brain neurons.
Credit: © James Steidl / Fotolia
A review and update of a controversial 20-year-old theory of consciousness published in Physics of Life Reviews claims that consciousness derives from deeper level, finer scale activities inside brain neurons. The recent discovery of quantum vibrations in "microtubules" inside brain neurons corroborates this theory, according to review authors Stuart Hameroff and Sir Roger Penrose. They suggest that EEG rhythms (brain waves) also derive from deeper level microtubule vibrations, and that from a practical standpoint, treating brain microtubule vibrations could benefit a host of mental, neurological, and cognitive conditions.
The theory, called "orchestrated objective reduction" ('Orch OR'), was first put forward in the mid-1990s by eminent mathematical physicist Sir Roger Penrose, FRS, Mathematical Institute and Wadham College, University of Oxford, and prominent anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff, MD, Anesthesiology, Psychology and Center for Consciousness Studies, The University of Arizona, Tucson. They suggested that quantum vibrational computations in microtubules were "orchestrated" ("Orch") by synaptic inputs and memory stored in microtubules, and terminated by Penrose "objective reduction" ('OR'), hence "Orch OR." Microtubules are major components of the cell structural skeleton.
Orch OR was harshly criticized from its inception, as the brain was considered too "warm, wet, and noisy" for seemingly delicate quantum processes.. However, evidence has now shown warm quantum coherence in plant photosynthesis, bird brain navigation, our sense of smell, and brain microtubules. The recent discovery of warm temperature quantum vibrations in microtubules inside brain neurons by the research group led by Anirban Bandyopadhyay, PhD, at the National Institute of Material Sciences in Tsukuba, Japan (and now at MIT), corroborates the pair's theory and suggests that EEG rhythms also derive from deeper level microtubule vibrations. In addition, work from the laboratory of Roderick G. Eckenhoff, MD, at the University of Pennsylvania, suggests that anesthesia, which selectively erases consciousness while sparing non-conscious brain activities, acts via microtubules in brain neurons.
"The origin of consciousness reflects our place in the universe, the nature of our existence. Did consciousness evolve from complex computations among brain neurons, as most scientists assert? Or has consciousness, in some sense, been here all along, as spiritual approaches maintain?" ask Hameroff and Penrose in the current review. "This opens a potential Pandora's Box, but our theory accommodates both these views, suggesting consciousness derives from quantum vibrations in microtubules, protein polymers inside brain neurons, which both govern neuronal and synaptic function, and connect brain processes to self-organizing processes in the fine scale, 'proto-conscious' quantum structure of reality."
After 20 years of skeptical criticism, "the evidence now clearly supports Orch OR," continue Hameroff and Penrose. "Our new paper updates the evidence, clarifies Orch OR quantum bits, or "qubits," as helical pathways in microtubule lattices, rebuts critics, and reviews 20 testable predictions of Orch OR published in 1998 -- of these, six are confirmed and none refuted."
An important new facet of the theory is introduced. Microtubule quantum vibrations (e.g. in megahertz) appear to interfere and produce much slower EEG "beat frequencies." Despite a century of clinical use, the underlying origins of EEG rhythms have remained a mystery. Clinical trials of brief brain stimulation aimed at microtubule resonances with megahertz mechanical vibrations using transcranial ultrasound have shown reported improvements in mood, and may prove useful against Alzheimer's disease and brain injury in the future.
Lead author Stuart Hameroff concludes, "Orch OR is the most rigorous, comprehensive and successfully-tested theory of consciousness ever put forth. From a practical standpoint, treating brain microtubule vibrations could benefit a host of mental, neurological, and cognitive conditions."
The review is accompanied by eight commentaries from outside authorities, including an Australian group of Orch OR arch-skeptics. To all, Hameroff and Penrose respond robustly.
Penrose, Hameroff and Bandyopadhyay will explore their theories during a session on "Microtubules and the Big Consciousness Debate" at the Brainstorm Sessions, a public three-day event at the Brakke Grond in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, January 16-18, 2014. They will engage skeptics in a debate on the nature of consciousness, and Bandyopadhyay and his team will couple microtubule vibrations from active neurons to play Indian musical instruments. "Consciousness depends on anharmonic vibrations of microtubules inside neurons, similar to certain kinds of Indian music, but unlike Western music which is harmonic," Hameroff explains.

Source via: science daily
Story Source:
Materials provided by ElsevierNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal References:
  1. Stuart Hameroff and Roger Penrose. Consciousness in the universe: A review of the ‘Orch OR’ theoryPhysics of Life Reviews, 2013 DOI: 10.1016/j.plrev.2013.08.002
  2. Stuart Hameroff, MD, and Roger Penrose. Reply to criticism of the ‘Orch OR qubit’–‘Orchestrated objective reduction’ is scientifically justifiedPhysics of Life Reviews, 2013 DOI: 10.1016/j.plrev.2013.11.00
  3. Stuart Hameroff, Roger Penrose. Consciousness in the universePhysics of Life Reviews, 2013; DOI: 10.1016/j.plrev.2013.08.002

Saturday, 21 October 2017

The era of multimessenger astronomy begins



16 Oct 2017 in Research & Technology


AuthorAndrew Grant

Seconds after LIGO and Virgo detected gravitational waves from the merger of neutron stars, the Fermitelescope spotted a gamma-ray burst. Nearly six dozen other observatories have joined the fun.




Neutron star collision
This illustration depicts the first moments after a neutron-star merger. A jet of gamma rays erupts perpendicular to the orbital plane, while radioactively heated ejecta glow in multiple wavelengths. Credit: NSF/LIGO/Sonoma State University/A. Simonnet

On 17 August the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), along with sister observatory Virgo, detected a swell of gravitational waves. Less than two seconds after that signal ceased, the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope identified a flash in the southern sky. Though it would take several hours to verify, researchers had spotted a gamma-ray burst (GRB) triggered by the collision of two neutron stars.
In the ensuing weeks, 70 telescopes in space and on the ground collected data across the electromagnetic spectrum on the GRB, which occurred about 130 million light-years away in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4993, located in the constellation Hydra. The discovery, announced Monday at a Washington, DC, press conference and in some 50 scientific papers, has implications that stretch far beyond gravitational-wave astronomy. It proves that at least some short-duration GRBs are triggered by crashing neutron stars. It offers evidence of the tidal forces that rip the ultradense orbs apart and that the subsequent explosion creates heavy metals such as gold, platinum, and uranium. It even provides a novel means of measuring the universe’s expansion rate. Overall, the discovery sets the standard for how gravitational-wave and electromagnetic observatories can work in tandem to probe the universe’s densest and most energetic objects.
Getting lucky
Astronomers have puzzled over the origins of GRBs since a US satellite scanning for Soviet nuclear tests spotted one 50 years ago. A distinct class of GRBs, known as short because the primary burst lasts less than two seconds, has been thought to be triggered by the merger of compact stellar objects (see Physics Today, November 2005, page 17). Spotting such a union ahead of time was impossible until LIGO and Virgo came along. Though astronomers found no electromagnetic counterpart to any of LIGO’s first four detections, those were of coalescing black holes, which presumably emit little radiation.



GW signals
The two LIGO detectors measured a clear signal from the merging neutron stars. Virgo data helped localize the source. Credit: B. P. Abbott et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2017

The 17 August gravitational-wave signal immediately stood out. The two LIGO detectors, in Louisiana and Washington State, registered about 3300 oscillations over more than a minute and a half, some 500 times longer than each of the four chirps LIGO had previously detected. The duration and amplitude of the signal implied the orbital dance of neutron stars, with a combined mass of about 2.7 times that of the Sun, that ultimately merged to form either a larger neutron star or, more likely, a black hole. Due to the event’s relative proximity, the strength of the gravitational radiation was remarkably high: The signal-to-noise ratio of roughly 32 exceeded by a third the already impressive one for LIGO’s first black hole–black hole merger (see Physics Today, April 2016, page 14).
Because Virgo in Italy had begun operating just weeks earlier, researchers had the benefit of a third detector to narrow down the origin of the signal to a 28-square-degree slice of sky. That target area fit within the bounds of the source region suggested by Fermi’s Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor. Between the location and timing, researchers from Fermi and the LIGO–Virgo collaboration were confident that they had observed the same event. They were incredibly lucky. Neutron-star mergers emit gravitational waves in all directions, but gamma rays are thought to be confined to a narrow jet. A paper released earlier this year warned that “we should not expect the first—or even the first several dozen—GW chirps” from neutron-star binaries to be aligned favorably enough to produce detectable GRBs.
A tilted, heavy-metal burst
About 10 hours after the Fermi-observed flash, the Swope Telescope in Chile spotted an optical counterpart to the burst; five other observatories chimed in within the next hour. Over the next several days, optical, IR, and UV observations captured emissions from an event associated with short GRBs: a kilonova. In the final moments of the fatal orbital tango, tidal forces tore neutron-rich matter from the surfaces of the compact stellar cores. Atomic nuclei gobbled up free neutrons faster than they could undergo radioactive decay. On the order of seconds, that rapid neutron-capture mechanism, or r-process, forged about 10 000 Earth masses of elements heavier than iron. Subsequently, the unstable products broke down via fission and alpha and beta decay, emitting heat and leading to a thermally glowing mass of ejecta.
The kilonova observation provides the best evidence of the r-process in action. Based on this single detection, scientists can now confidently say that much of the universe’s gold and platinum and nearly all its uranium are produced in neutron-star mergers, says LIGO executive director David Reitze. In the months ahead, theorists will be contemplating whether there’s room for any other cataclysmic events, particularly core-collapse supernovae, to play a role in the r-process (see the article by John Cowan and Friedrich-Karl Thielemann, Physics Today, October 2004, page 47).



Optical detection
The Swope and Magellan Telescopes in Chile captured the first optical and near-IR images of the aftermath of the 17 August neutron-star collision. Over four days the source became dimmer and redder. Credit: 1M2H/UC Santa Cruz and Carnegie Observatories/Ryan Foley

Not every observation of the collision aftermath proved as textbook as that of the kilonova. The intensity of the gamma rays was several orders of magnitude less than expected from a short GRB at that distance. In addition, x-ray astronomers had to wait nine days to glean a signal from the event; radio astronomers’ searches came up empty until 2 September. Those factors led researchers to conclude that the gamma-ray jet, which shoots out perpendicular to the orbital plane of the progenitor neutron stars, wasn’t aligned directly with Earth. Astronomers have been hunting for such an off-axis GRB for 20 years, says Alessandra Corsi, a Texas Tech University astronomer who studies relativistic transients. Studying the jet from an angle may provide a unique suite of information about the jet and its interaction with the interstellar medium, Corsi says.
Tricks of the trade
In addition to creating the conditions for a kilonova, tidal forces also leave their mark on gravitational-wave emissions. They ramp up quickly once the orbital frequency reaches about 50 Hz, sapping the binary system of energy and accelerating the final merger. Astrophysicists would love to pin down the strength of those tides to help expose the composition and density profile of neutron stars’ tightly packed nuclear matter (see the article by Nanda Rea, Physics Today, October 2015, page 62). Analyzing the gravitational waveforms, however, is time-consuming and computationally demanding—running numerical relativity simulations for about a quarter-second’s worth of orbits takes about three weeks. In the meantime, LIGO–Virgo researchers relied on a faster but less precise relativity analysis; the maximum tidal parameter they obtained corresponds to neutron-star radii of about 14 km. They plan to improve that estimate in the coming months.
Beyond exploring explosions and their progenitors, the researchers probed bigger-picture questions. By combining the distance to the source indicated by the gravitational-wave signal with the redshift of the host galaxy, they estimated the universe’s expansion rate, or Hubble constant. Though the initial estimate is rough—between 62 km/s/Mpc and 82 km/s/Mpc—it is consistent with the values derived by other techniques (see the article by Mario Livio and Adam Riess, Physics Today, October 2013, page 41), and the precision will improve with future detections.
Unless another merger is hidden in the LIGO–Virgo data, the next detection won’t come until this time next year at the earliest—both observatories are shut down for upgrades. Yet the single detection will keep scientists occupied for that time and longer. The burst continues to glow, Corsi says, and it’s even getting brighter in the radio band.

Source: physicstoday

Saturday, 7 October 2017

Have a hammer handy while you are driving a car

## Always keep a hammer in car ##
Driving is probably the most dangerous thing most of us will ever do. According to available data, there are more than 8 million deaths and over 10 million injuries from motor vehicle crashes in the world every year.
Although you do your best to drive responsibly and defensively, it's still smart to know what to do just in case you got stuck in an accidental car.
Accidents can be very scary, and results in very unexpected consequences. When a car crashes or sinks in a flood or river, most of the time it's electronic systems get failed. Now a days central locking and power window is an essential feature of any car,which are controlled by central chip system.
When you are stuck in a car after crash or failure of electronic control system, your windows and gates will not work. There is no another way to get out from your burning or sinking car. The glasses of cars are toughened enough that no one can break it easily without proper tools.
One should always keep a hammer in his car, so that glasses can be broken down in case of emergency. Hammer is an appropriate tool for breaking glass in minimum effort.
This small knowledge may save life of you and your loved ones. :) also have to keep cutter while crash your seatbelt also get locked so if u have cutter u can easily cut seatbelt & get free yourself


Thursday, 5 October 2017

All physics definitions


The letter A:

Absolute zero:  lowest possible temperature at which gas would have a zero volume. 

Absorption spectrum:  spectrum of electromagnetic radiation absorbed by matter when 
radiation of all frequencies is passed through it. 

Acceleration:  change in velocity divided by time interval over which it occurred. 

Accuracy:  closeness of a measurement to the standard value of that quantity. 

Achromatic lens:  lens for which all light colors have the same focal length. 

Action-reaction forces:  pair of forces involved in an interaction that are equal in magnitude and opposition in direction. 

Activity:  number of decays per second of a radioactive substance. 

Adhesion:  force of attraction between two unlike materials. 

Air resistance:  force of air on objects moving through it. 

Alpha decay:  process in which a nucleus emits an alpha particle. 

Alpha particle:  positively- charged particles consisting of two protons and two neutrons emitted by radioactive materials. 

Ammeter:  device to measure electrical current. 

Amorphous solid:  solids that have no long- range order; no crystal structure. 

Ampere:  unit of electric current; one ampere is the flow of one coulomb of charge per second. 

Amplitude:  in any periodic motion, the maximum displacement from equilibrium. 

Angle of incidence:  angle between direction of motion of waves and a line perpendicular to surface the waves are striking. 

Angle of reflection:  angle between direction of motion of waves and a line perpendicular to surface the waves are reflected from. 

Angle of refraction:  angle between direction of motion of waves and a line perpendicular to surface the waves have been refracted from. 

Angular momentum:  quantity of rotational motion. For a rotating object, product of moment of inertia and angular velocity. 

Annihilation:  process in which a particle and its antiparticle are converted into energy. 

Antenna:  device used to receive or transmit electromagnetic waves. 

Antineutrino: subatomic particle with no charge or mass emitted in beta decay. 

Antinode: point of maximum displacement of two superimposed waves. 

Archimedes’ principle:  object immersed in a fluid has an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. 

Artificial radioactivity:  radioactive isotope not found in nature. 

atomic mass unit:  unit of mass equal to 1/12 the atomic mass of carbon- 12 nucleus. 

Atomic number:  number of protons in the nucleus of the atom. 

Average acceleration:  acceleration measured over a finite time interval 

Average velocity:  velocity measured over a finite time interval.


The Letter B:

Back-EMF: potential difference a cross a conductor caused by change in magnetic flux. 

Band theory:  theory explaining electrical conduction in solids. 

Baryon:  subatomic particle composed of three quarks.  Interacts with the strong nuclear force. 

Battery: device that converts chemical to electrical energy consisting of two dissimilar conductors and an electrolyte. 

Beat : slow oscillation in amplitude of a complex wave 

Bernoulli’s principle:  when a fixed quantity of fluid flows, the pressure is decreased when the flow velocity increases. 

Beta decay:  radioactive decay process in which an electron or positron and neutrino is emitted from a nucleus. 

Beta particle:  high speed electron emitted by a radioactive nucleus in beta decay. 

Binding energy:  negative of the amount of energy needed to separate a nucleus into individual nucleons. 

Boiling point:  temperature at which a substance, under normal atmospheric pressure, changes from a liquid to a vapor state. 

Breeder reactor:  nuclear reactor that converts nonfissionable nuclei to fissionable nuclei while producing energy. 

Bubble chamber:  instrument containing superheated liquid in which the path of ionizing particles is made visible as trails of tiny bubbles. 

Buoyant force:  upward force on an object immersed in fluid.
---------------
The Letter C:

Calorimeter:  device that isolates objects to measure temperature changes do to heat flow.
Candela:  unit of luminous intensity.
Capacitance:  ratio of charge stored per increase in potential difference.
Capacitor:  electrical device used to store charge and energy in the electrical field.
Capillary action:  rise of liquid in narrow tube due to surface tension.
Carnot efficiency:  ideal efficiency of heat engine or refrigerator working between two constant temperatures.
Centripetal force:  force that causes centripetal acceleration.
Chain reaction:  nuclear reaction in which neutrons are produced that can cause further reactions.
Charged :  object that has an unbalance of positive and negative electrical charges.
Charging by conduction:  process of charging by touching neutral object to a charged object.
Charging by induction:  process of charging by bringing neutral object near charged object, then removing part of resulting separated charge.
Chromatic aberration:  variation in focal length of lens with wavelength of light.
Circular motion:  motion with constant radius of curvature caused by acceleration being perpendicular to velocity.
Clock reading:  time between event and a reference time, usually zero.
Closed, isolated system:  collection of objects such that neither matter nor energy can enter or leave the collection.
Closed-pipe resonator:  cylindrical tube with one end closed and a sound source at other end.
Coefficient of friction:  ratio of frictional force and the normal force between two forces.
Coefficient of linear expansion:  change in length divided by original length and by temperature change.
Coefficient of volume expansion:  change in volume divided by original volume and by temperature change.
Coherent waves:  waves in which all are in step; are in phase.
Cohesive force:  attractive force between similar substances.
Complementary color:  two colors that, when added , produce white light.  Two pigments, that when combined, produce black.
Compound machine:  machine consisting of two or more simple machines.
Compton effect:  interaction of photons, usually X rays, with electrons in matter resulting in increased wavelength of X rays and kinetic energy of electrons.
Concave lens:  lens thinner in center than edges; a diverging lens.
Concave mirror:  converging mirror, one with center of curvature on reflecting side of mirror.
Conduction band:  energies of charge carries in a solid such that the carries are free to move.
Conductor:  materials through which charged particles move readily; or heat flow readily.
Conserved  properties:  property that is the same before and after an interaction.
Consonance: two or more sounds that, when heard together, sound pleasant.
Constant acceleration:  acceleration that does not change in time.
Constant velocity:  velocity that does not change in time.
Constructive interference:  superposition of waves resulting in a combined wave  with amplitude larger than the component waves.
Convection:  heat transfer by means of motion of fluid.
Conventional current:  motion of positive electrical current.
Converging lens:  lens that causes light rays to converge; usually a convex lens.
Convex lens: lens that is thicker in the center than at edges.
Convex mirror:  diverging mirror.  Center of curvature is on side opposite reflecting side of mirror.
Cosine:  the ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse.
Coulomb:  unit of electrical charge.  Charge caused by flow of one ampere for one second.
Crest of wave:  high point of wave motion.
Critical angle:  minimum angle of incidence that produces total internal reflection.
Crystal lattice:  structure of solid consisting of regular arrangment of atoms.
---------------

The Letter D:


De Broglie wavelength:  length of de Broglie wave of particle; Planck’s constant divided by momentum of particle.
Decibel:  unit of sound level.
Dependent variable:  variable that responds to change in manipulated variable.
Derived units: unit of quantity that consists of combination of fundamental units.
Destructive interference:  superposition of waves resulting in a combined wave with zero amplitude.
Diffraction:  bending of waves around object in their path.
Diffraction grating:  material containing many parallel lines very closely spaced that produces a light spectrum by interference.
Diffuse reflection: reflection of light into many directions by rough object.
Dimensional analysis:  checking a derived equation by making sure dimensions are the same on both sides.
Diode:  electrical device permitting only one way current flow.
Dispersion of light:  variation with wavelength of speed of light through matter resulting in separation of light into spectrum.
Displacement:  change in position. A vector quantity.
Dissonance:  two or more sounds that, when together, sound unpleasant.
Distance:  separation between two points.  A scalar quantity.
Diverging lens:  lens that causes light rays to spread apart or diverge; usually a concave lens.
Dopants:  small quantities of material added to semiconductor to increase electrical conduction.
Doppler shift:  change in wavelength due to relative motion of source and detector.
Dynamics:  study of motion of particles acted on by forces.
---------------
The Letter E:


Effective current:  DC current that would produce the same heating effects.
Effective voltage:  DC potential difference that would produce the same heating effects.
Efficiency:  ratio of output work to input work.
Effort force:  force extended on a machine.
Elastic collision:  interaction between two objects in which the total energy is the same before and after the interaction.
Elasticity:  ability of object to original shape after deforming forces are removed.
Electrical charge pump:  device, often a battery or generator, that increase potential of electrical charge.
Electrical circuit:  continuous path through which electrical charges can flow.
Electrical current:  flow of charged particles.
Electrical field:  property of space around a charged object that causes forces on other charged objects.
Electric field lines:  lines representing the direction of electric field.
Electric field strength:  ratio of force exerted by field on a tiny test charge to that change.
Electric generator:  device converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Electric potential:  ratio of electric potential energy to charge.
Electric potential difference:  difference in electric potential between two points.
Electric potential energy:  energy of a charged body in an electrical field.
Electromagnet:  device that uses an electric current to produce a concentrated magnetic field.
Electromagnetic force:  one of fundamental forces due to electric charges, both static and moving.
Electromagnetic induction:  production of electric field or current due to change in magnetic flux.
Electromagnetic radiation:  energy carried by electromagnetic waves throughout space.
Electromagnetic waves:  wave consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that move at speed of light through space.
Electromotive force:  potential difference produced by electromagnetic induction.
Electron:  subatomic particle of small mass and negative charge found in every atom.
Electron cloud:  region of high probability of finding an electron around an atom.
Electron diffraction:  effects on electrons due to wave-like interference of electrons with matter.
Electron gas model:  description of current flow through conductors.
Electroscope:  device to detect electric charges.
Electrostatics:  study of properties and results of electric charges at rest.
Electroweak force:  unification of electromagnetic and weak forces.
Elementary charge:  magnitude of the charge of an electron. 1.602 *10^  -19
Emission spectrum:  spectrum produced by radiation from excited atoms.
Energy:  non-material property capable of causing changes in matter.
Energy levels:  amounts of energy an electron in an atom may have.
Entropy:  measure of disorder in a system; ratio of heat added to temperature.
Equilibrant force:  force needed to bring an object into transitional equilibrium.
Equilibrium:  condition in which net force is equal to zero.  Condition in which net torque on object is zero.
Equivalent resistance:  single resistance that could replace several resistors.
Evaporation:  change from liquid to vapor state.
Excited state:  energy level of atom higher than ground state.
External forces:  forces exerted from outside a system.
Extrinsic semiconductor:  semiconductor in which conduction is primarily the result of added impurities.
---------------
The Letter F:


Factor-label method:  dimensional analysis.
Farad:  unit of capacitance.  One coulomb per volt.
Ferromagnetic materials:  materials in which large internal magnetic fields are generated by cooperative action of electrons.
First harmonic:  in music, the fundamental frequency.
First law of thermodynamics:  change in internal or thermal energy is equal to heat added and work done on system.  Same as law of conservation of energy.
Fluid:  material that flows, i.e. liquids, gases, and plasmas.
Focal length:  distance from the focal point to the center of a lens or vertex of a mirror.
Focal point:  location at which rays parallel to the optical axis of an ideal mirror or lens converge to a point.
Forbidden gap:  energy values that electrons in a semiconductor or insulator may not have.
Force:  agent that results in accelerating or deforming an object.
Frame of reference: coordinate system used to define motion.
Fraunhofer lines:  absorption lines in the sun’s spectrum due to gases in the solar atmosphere.
Frequency:  number of occurrences per unit time.
Friction:  force opposing relative motion of two objects are in contact.
Fundamental particles:  those particles( i.e. quarks and leptons) of which all materials are composed.
Fundamental tone:  lowest frequency sound produced by a musical instrument.
Fundamental units:  set of units on which a measurement system is based( i.e. meter, second, kilogram, ampere, candela).
Fuse:  metal safety device in an electric circuit that melts to stop current flow when current is too large.
Fusion:  combination of two nuclei into one with release of energy.
---------------

The Letter G:


Galvanometer:  device used to measure very small currents.
Gamma decay:  process by which a nucleus emits a gamma ray.
Gamma particle:  high energy photon emitted by a radioactive nucleus.
Gas:  state of matter that expands to fill container.
Geiger-Mueller tube:  device used to detect radiation using its ability to ionize matter.
General theory of relativity:  explanation of gravity and accelerated motion invented by Einstein.
Gluon:  carrier of strong nuclear force.
Grand unified theories:  theories being developed that unify the stronger and electroweak forces into one force.
Gravitational field:  distortion of space due to the presence of mass.
Gravitational force:  attraction between two objects due to their mass.
Gravitational mass:  ratio of gravitational force to object’s acceleration.
Gravitational potential energy:  change of energy of object when moved in a gravitational field.
Graviton:  particle that carries the gravitational force.  Not yet observed.
Ground state:  lowest energy level of an electron in an atom.
Grounding:  process of connecting a charged object to Earth to remove object’s unbalanced charge.
---------------

The Letter H:


Half-life:  length of time for half of a sample of radioactive material to decay.
Harmonics:  frequencies produced by musical instrument that are multiples of fundamental tone.
Heat:  quantity of energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in temperature.
Heat engine:  device that converts thermal energy to mechanical energy.
Heat of fusion:  quantity of energy needed to change a unit mass of a substance from solid to liquid state at the melting point.
Heat of vaporization:  quantity of energy needed to change a unit mass of a substance from liquid to gaseous state at the boiling point.
Heavy water:  deuterium oxide used mainly in CANDU nuclear reactors.
Heisenberg uncertainty principle:  the more accurately one determines the position of a particle, the less accurately the momentum can be known, and vice versa.
Hertz:  unit of frequency equal to one event or cycle per second.
Hole:  absence of an electron in a semiconductor.
Hooke’s law:  deformation of an object is proportional to force causing it.
Huygens’ wavelets:  model of spreading of waves in which each point on wavefront is source of circular or spherical waves.
Hydraulic system:  machines using fluids to transmit energy.
Hyperbola:  mathematical curve that describes an inverse relationship between two variables.
Hypotenuse:  side opposite the right angle in a triangle.
--------------

The Letter I:

Ideal mechanical advantage:  in simple machine, the ratio of effort distance to resistance distance.
Illuminance:  rate at which electromagnetic wave energy falls on a surface.
Illuminated object:  object on which light falls.
Image:  reproduction of object formed with lenses or mirrors.
Impulse:  product of force and time interval over which it acts.
Impulse-momentum theorem:  impulse given to an object is equal to its change in momentum.
Incandescent body:  object that emits light because of its high temperature.
Incident wave:  wave that strikes a boundary where it is either reflected or refracted.
Incoherent light:  light consisting of waves that are not in step.
Independent variable:  variable that is manipulated or changed in an experiment.
Index of refraction:  ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to its speed in a material.
Inelastic collision:  collision in which some of the kinetic energy is changed into another form.
Inertia:  tendency of object not to change its motion.
Inertial mass:  ratio of net force exerted on object to its acceleration.
Initial velocity:  velocity of object at time t=0.
Instantaneous acceleration:  acceleration at a specific time; slope of tangent to velocity- time graph.
Instantaneous position:  position of an object at specific time.
Instantaneous velocity:  slope of the tangent to position- time graph.
Insulator:  material through which the flow of electrical charge carriers or heat is greatly reduced.
Interference fringes:  pattern of dark and light bands from interference of light waves.
Interference of waves:  displacements of two or more waves, producing either large or smaller waves.
Internal forces:  forces between objects within a system.
Intrinsic semiconductor:  semiconductor in which conduction is by charges due to host material, not impurities.
Inverse relationship:  mathematical relationship between two variables, x and y, summarized by the equation xy=k, where k is a constant.
Ionizing radiation:  particles or waves that can remove electrons from atoms, molecules, or atoms in a solid.
Isolated system:  a collection of objects not acted upon by external forces into which energy neither enters nor leaves.
Isotope:  atomic nuclei having same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
--------------

The Letter J:


Joule:  SI unit of energy equal to one Newton-meter.
Joule heating:  increase in temperature of electrical conductor due to conversion of electrical to thermal energy.
---------------

The Letter K:


Kelvin temperature scale:  scale with 0 K= absolute zero and 273.16 K = triple point of water.
Kepler’s laws:  three laws of motion of bodies attracted together by the gravitational force.
Kilogram:  SI unit of mass.
Kilowatt hour:  amount of energy equal to 3.6 * 10^  6 J.  Usually used in electrical measurement.
Kinematics:  study of motion of objects without regard to the causes of this motion.
Kinetic energy:  energy of object due to its motion.
Kinetic-molecular energy:  description of matter as being made up of extremely small particles in constant motion.
---------------

The Letter L:


Laser: devise that produces coherent light by stimulated emission of radiation.
Laser- induced fusion:  proposed method of creating nuclear fusion by using heating caused by intense laser beams to squeeze matter together.
Law of conservation of energy:  in a closed, isolated system, the total momentum is constant.
Law of reflection:  angle of incidence of a wave is equal to the angle of reflection.
Law of universal gravitation:  gravitational force between two objects depends directly on the product of their masses and inversely on the square of their separation.
Lens:  optical device designed to converge or diverge light.
Lens equation:  See mirror equation.
Lenz’s law:  magnetic field generated by an induced current opposes the change in field that caused the current.
Lepton:  particle that interacts with other particles only by the electroweak  and gravitational interactions.
Lever arm:  component of the displacement of the force from the axis of rotation in the axis  of rotation in the direction perpendicular to the force.
Light:  electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm that is visible.
Linear accelerator:  device to accelerate subatomic particles by applying successive electric field.
Linear relationship:  relationship between two variables, x and y, summarized by the equation y= ax + b, where a and b are constant.
Linear restoring force:  force in direction toward equilibrium position that depends linearly on distance from distance from that position.
Liquid:  materials that have fixed volume but whose shape depends on the container.
Lodestone:  naturally occurring magnetic rock.
Longitudinal waves:  wave in which direction of disturbance is the same as the direction of travel of wave.
Loudness:  physiological measure of amplitude of a sound wave; heard on pitch and tone color as well as amplitude.
Lumen:  unit of luminous flux.
Luminance intensity:  measure of light emitted by source in candelas; luminous flux divided by 4pie.
Luminous flux:  flow of light from source measured in lumens.
Luminous object:  object that emits light, as opposed to one that reflects light.
Lux:  unit of luminous flux; one lumen per square meter.
----------------

The Letter M:


Machine:  device that changes force needed to do work.
Magnetic field:  space around a magnet throughout which magnetic force exists.
Magnification:  ratio of size of an optical image to the size of the object.
Manipulated variable:  variable that the experimenter can change.
Mass defect:  mass equivalent of the binding energy; m=E/c^ 2
Mass number:  number of nucleons ( protons plus neutrons) in the nucleus of an atom.
Mass spectrometer:  device used to measure the mass of atoms or molecules.
Matter wave:  wave-like properties of particles such as electrons.
Mechanical advantage:  ratio of resistance force to effort force in a machine.
Mechanical energy:  sum of potential and kinetic energy.
Mechanical resonance:  condition at which natural oscillation frequency equals frequency of driving force; amplitude of oscillatory motion at a maximum.
Mechanical wave:  wave consisting of periodic motion of matter; e.g. sound wave or water wave as opposed to electromagnetic wave.
Melting point:  temperature at which substance changes from solid to liquid state.
Meson:  medium mass subatomic particle consisting of combination of a quark and antiquark.
Meter:  SI unit of length.
Mirror equation:  1/do +1/di=1/f, where do is object distance, di is image distance, f is focal length.
Moderator:  material used to decrease speed of neutrons in nuclear reactor.
Momentum:  product of object’s mass and velocity.
Monochromatic light:  light of a single wavelength.
Mutual inductance:  measures the amount of overlap between the magnetic flux produced in one coil and that which passes through a second coil, thus the amount of EMP induced in a secondary coil by the varying flux in the primary coil.
Myopia:  defect of eye, commonly called nearsightedness, in which distant objects focus in front of the retina.
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The Letter N:


n-type semiconductor:  semiconductor in which current is carried by electrons.
Net force:  vector sum of forces on object.
Neutral:  object that has no net electric charge.
Neutrino:  chargeless, massless, subatomic particle emitted with beta particles; type of lepton.
Neutron:  subatomic particle with no charge and mass slightly greater than that of proton; type of nucleon.
Newton:  SI unit of force.
Newton’s law of motion:  laws relating force and acceleration.
Node:  point where disturbances caused by two or more waves result in no displacement.
Normal:  perpendicular to plane of interest.
Normal force:  force perpendicular to surface.
Nuclear equation:  equation representing a nuclear reaction.
Nuclear fission:  reaction in which large nucleus splits into two parts, often approximately equal in mass.
Nuclear fusion:  reaction in which two nuclei are combined into one.
Nuclear reaction:  reaction involving the strong force in which the number of protons or neutrons in a nucleus changes.
Nuclear reactor:  device in which nuclear fusion is used to generate electricity.
Nuclear transmutation:  change of one nucleus into another as the result of a nuclear reaction.
Nucleon:  either a proton or a neutron.
Nuclide:  nucleus of an isotope.
---------------

The Letter O:


Object:  source of diverging light rays; either luminous or illuminated.
Octave:  interval between two frequencies with a ratio of two to one.
Ohm:  SI unit of resistance; one volt per ampere.
Ohm’s law:  resistance of object is constant, independent of voltage across it.
Opaque:  material that does not transmit light.
Open- pipe resonator:  cylindrical tube with both ends closed and a sound source at one end.
---------------

The Letter P:


p-type semiconductor:  semiconductor in which conduction is the result of motion of holes.
Pair production:  formation of particle and antiparticle from gamma rays.
Parabolic mirror:  mirror the shape of a paraboloid  of revolution that has no spherical aberration.
Parallel circuit:  circuit in which there are two or more paths for current flow.
Parallel connection:  connection of two or more electrical devices between two points to provide more than one current path.
Pascal:  SI unit of pressure; one neutron per square meter.
Pascal’s principle:  pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted undiminished throughout it.
Period:  time needed to repeat one complete cycle of motion.
Periodic motion:  motion that repeats itself at regular intervals of time.
Photoelectric effect:  election of electrons from surface of metal exposed to electromagnetic radiation.
Photon:  quantum of electromagnetic waves; particle aspect of these waves.
Photovoltaic cell:  device that converts electromagnetic radiation into electrical energy.
Physics:  study of matter and energy and their relationship.
Piezoelectricity:  electric potential produced by deforming material.
Pigment:  colored material that absorbs certain colors and transmits or reflects others.
Pitch:  perceived sound characteristics equivalent to frequency.
Planck’s constant:  ratio of energy of photon to its frequency.
Plane mirror:  flat, smooth surface that reflects light regularly.
Plasma:  state of matter in which atoms are separated into electrons and positive ions or bare nuclei.
Point object:  object idealized as so small to be located at only one position.
Polarized light:  light in which electric fields are all in same plane.
Position:  separation between object and a reference point.
Position- time graph:  graph of object’s motion that shows how its position depends on clock reading, or time.
Positron:  antiparticle equivalent of electron.
Potential difference:  difference in electric potential between two points.
Potential energy:  energy of object due to its position or state.
Potentiometer:  electrical device with variable resistance; rheostat.
Power:  rate of doing work; rate of energy conversion.
Precision:  degree of exactness in a measurement.
Pressure:  force per unit area.
Primary coil:  transformer coil that, when connected to voltage source, creates varying magnetic flux.
Primary light colors:  red, green, or blue light.
Primary pigment:  yellow, green, or magenta light.
Principal axis:  line connecting center of curvature of spherical mirror with its geometric vertex.  Line perpendicular to plane of lens passing through its center.
Principle of superposition:  displacement due to two or more forces is equal to vector sum of forces.
Projectiles:  motion of objects given initial velocity that then move only under force of  gravity.
Proton:  subatomic particle with positive charge that is nucleus of hydrogen atom.
---------------

The Letter Q:

quantized:  a quantity that cannot be divided into smaller increments forever, for which there exists a minimum, quantum increment.
Quantum mechanic:  study of properties of matter using its wave properties.
Quantum model of atom:  atomic model in which only probability of locating electron is known.
Quantum number:  integer ratio of energy to its quantum increment.
Quark:  basic building block of protons, neutrons, other baryons, and mesons.
Quark model:  model in which all particles that interact via the strong interaction are composed of two or three quarks.
---------------

The Letter R:


Radiation:  electromagnetic waves that carry energy.
Radioactive decay:  spontaneous change of unstable nuclei into other nuclei.
Radioactive materials:  materials that undergo radioactive decay.
Range of projectile:  horizontal distance between launch point of projectile and where it returns to launch height.
Ray model of light:  light may be represented by straight line along direction of motion.
Ray optics:  study of light using ray model.
Rayleigh criterion:  two optical images are separable if central bright spot of one image falls on first dark band of second.
Real image:  optical image at which rays from object converge.
Receiver:  device that detects electromagnetic waves.
Reference level:  location at which potential energy is chosen to be zero.
Reference point:  zero location in a coordinate system or frame of reference.
Refraction:  change in direction of light ray when passing one medium to another.
Refractive index:  ratio of speed of light in vacuum to that in the medium.
Resistance:  ratio of potential difference across device to current through it.
Resistance force:  force exerted by a machine.
Resistor:  device designed to have a specific resistance.
Responding variable:  variable that changes as result of change in manipulated variable.
Rest energy:  energy due to mass of object; E= mc^  2.
Resultant:  vector sum of two or more vectors.
Right -hand rules:  used to find force on current or moving particle in magnetic field; used to find direction of magnetic field caused by current or of induced EMF.
Rutherford’s model of atom:  nuclear model of atom; essentially all mass in compact, positively- charged object at center, surrounded by electrons.
---------------

The Letter S:


Scalar:  quantity, like distance, that has only a magnitude, or size.
Schematic diagram:  representation of electric circuit using symbols.
Scientific notation:  numbers expressed in form  M * 10 ^ n , where 1< M < 10, and n is an integer.
Scintillation:  flash of light emitted when substance is struck by radiation.
Second:  SI unit of time.
Second law of thermodynamics:  heat flow only from region of high temperature o region of lower temperature.
Secondary coil:  transformer coil in which varying EMF is induced.
Secondary light colors:  yellow, cyan, or magenta light.
Secondary pigment:  red, green, or blue pigment.
Self- inductance:  induced EMF produced in coil by changing current.
Semiconductor:  material in which electrical conduction is smaller than that in a conductor, but more than in insulator.
Series circuit:  circuit in which electrical current flows through each component, one after another.
Series connection:  arrangement of electrical devices so that there is only one path through which current can flow.
Short circuit:  low resistance connection between two points, often accidental.
SI:  internationally agreed -upon method of using the metric system of measurement.
Significant digit:  reliable digits reported in a measurement.
Simple harmonic motion:  motion caused by linear restoring that has a period independent of amplitude of motion.
Simple machine:  machine consisting of only one lever, inclined plane, wedge, screw, pulley, or wheel and axle.
Sine:  the ratio of the opposite side and the hypotenuse.
Sliding friction:  force between two surfaces in relative motion.
Slope:  ratio of the vertical separation, or rise to the horizontal separation, or run.
Solid:  state of matter with fixed volume and shape.
Sound level:  quantity measuring logarithm of sound intensity in decibels.
Spark chamber:  device used to detect path of charged subatomic particles by a spark that jumps along path of ionization created in a gas.
Specific heat:  thermal energy needs to change temperature of unit mass of substance one Kelvin.
Spectroscope:  device used to study spectrum of material.
Spectrum:  collection of wavelengths in electromagnetic spectrum.
Speed:  ratio of distance traveled to time interval.
Speed of light:  in vacuum, 2.9979458 * 10^8 m/s.
Spherical aberration:  inability of spherical mirror to focus all parallel rays to a single point.
Standing wave:  wave with stationary nodes.
Static friction:  force that opposes start of motion between two surfaces.
Step- down transformer:  transformer with output voltage smaller than input voltage.
Step- up transformer:  transformer with output voltage larger than input voltage.
Stimulated emission:  emission of photon from excited atom caused by impact fo photon of same energy.
Strong nuclear force:  force of very short range that holds neutrons and protons in nucleus together.
Superconductor:  electrical conductor that has no resistance and low temperatures.
Surface wave:  wave on surface of liquid with characteristics of both longitudinal and transverse waves.
Symmetry:  property that is now charged when operation or reference frame is charged.
Synchrotron:  device to accelerate particles in which particles move in circular path.
System:  defined collection of objects.
---------------

The Letter T:


tangent:  the ratio of the opposite side and the adjacent side.
Temperature:  measure of hotness of object on a quantitative scale.  In gases, proportional to average kinetic energy of molecules.
Terminal velocity:  velocity of falling object reached when force of air resistance equals weight.
Test charge:  charge used, in principle, to measure electric field.
Thermal energy:  internal energy.  Sum of kinetic and potential energy of random motion of particles making up object.
Thermal equilibrium:  state between two or more bodies where temperatures do not change.
Thermal expansion:  increase of length or volume of object due to change in temperature.
Thermometer:  device used to measure temperature.
Thermonuclear reaction:  nuclear fusion.
Thin- film interference:  light interference caused by reflection from both front and rear surface of thin layer of liquid or solid.
Timbre:  sound quality or tone color; spectrum of sound frequencies that produce a complete wave.
Time interval:  difference in time between two clock readings.
Tokamak:  type of fusion reactor.
Tone color:  timbre or tone quality.
Torque:  product of force and the lever arm.
Trajectory:  the path followed by projectile.
Transformer:  device to transform energy from one electrical circuit to another by means of mutual inductance between two coils.
Transistor:  semiconductor device that controls large current by means of small voltage changes.
Translucent:  material transmitting light without but distorting its path.
Transmutation:  nuclear change from one element to another.
Transparent:  material transmitting light without distorting directions of waves.
Transverse waves:  wave in which disturbance is perpendicular to direction of travel of wave.
Traveling wave:  moving, periodic disturbance in a medium or field.
Trigonometry:  branch of math that deals with the relationship among angles and sides of triangles.
Trough of wave:  low point of wave motion, where displacement is most negative.
---------------

The Letter U:


Uniform acceleration:  constant acceleration.
Uniform circular motion:  motion in a circle of constant radius with constant speed.
---------------

The Letter V:


Valence band:  in a solid, the range of energies of electrons that are bound to atoms.
Vector quantity:  quantity having both magnitude (size) and direction.
Vector resolution:  process of finding the effective value of a component in a given direction.
Velocity:  ratio of change in position to time interval over which change takes place.
Velocity- time graph:  plot of velocity of object as a function of time.
Virtual image:  point from which light rays appear to diverge without actually doing so.
Viscous fluid:  fluid that creates force that opposes motion of objects through it.  The force is proportional to object’s speed.
Volatile liquid:  liquid that is easily vaporized.
----------------

The Letter W:


Watt:  unit of power, one joule per second.
Wavelength:  distance between corresponding points on two successive waves.
Wave pulse:  single disturbance moving through a medium or field.
Weak boson:  particle that carries or transmits the weak interaction of force.
Weak interaction:  force involved in beta decay of the neutron and atomic nuclei; one aspect of the electroweak force.
Weight:  force of gravity of an object.
Weightlessness:  object in freefall, on which only the gravitational force acts.
Wilson cloud chamber:  chamber containing supersaturated vapor through which ionizing radiation leaves trails of visible droplets.
Work:  product of force and displacement in the direction of the force.
Work function:  energy needed to remove an electron from metal.
Work energy theorem:  work done on object is equal to the change in its kinetic energy.
---------------

The Letter X:

X ray:  high- energy photons; high- frequency, short-wavelength electromagnetic waves.
X-ray diffraction:  A complicated technique using x-rays to "create an image" where no lense to focus the light rays is available.
X-ray images:  Images such as photographs or computer enhanced images produced by bombarding a target with x-rays.
---------------

The Letter Y:


Young's modulus:  A constant of proportionality associated with the change in length of a material according to its elastic properties.
---------------

The Letter Z:


Zero-point energy:  The lowest energy state of molecular vibration


Tuesday, 3 October 2017

Who invented the first electric washing machine?

The first washing machine powered by electricity was invented by Alva J.Fisher in 1908. Fisher worked for the Hurley Washing Machine in Chicago and named his creation The Thor.

Who invented the first electric washing machine?
Credit: Matthias Werner CC-BY-2.0

FULL ANSWER

Previous to the invention of the electric-powered washing machine, James King invented a machine that used a drum device in 1851 that is still in use today for some machines. His machine was hand powered. In 1858 Hamilton Smith created the first rotary powered washing machine. Rotary power uses a 4-stroke combustion cycle. Both of these inventions are what made Alva J. Fisher's invention of the electric washing machine possible.

source: reference.com
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