Tuesday, 19 November 2019

When stuck in water, bees create a wave and hydrofoil atop it, study finds


Walking on Caltech's campus, research engineer Chris Roh (MS '13, Ph.D. '17) happened to see a bee stuck in the water of Millikan Pond. Although it was a common-enough sight, it led Roh and his advisor, Mory Gharib (Ph.D. '83), to a discovery about the potentially unique way that bees navigate the interface between water and air.
Roh spied the bee during California's years-long drought, when the pond's fountain was turned off and the  was still. The incident occurred around noon, so the overhead sun cast the shadows of the bee—and, more importantly, the waves churned by the flailing bee's efforts—directly onto the bottom of the pool.
As the bee struggled to make its way to the edge of the pond, Roh noticed that the shadows on the pool's bottom showed the amplitude of the waves generated by the bee's wings, as well as the interference pattern created as the waves from each individual wing crashed into each other.
"I was very excited to see this behavior and so I brought the honeybee back to the lab to take a look at it more closely," Roh says.
Working with Gharib, Caltech's Hans W. Liepmann Professor of Aeronautics and Bioinspired Engineering, Roh recreated the conditions of Millikan Pond. They placed water in a pan, allowed it to become perfectly still, and then put bees, one at a time, in the water. As each bee flapped about in the water, filtered light was aimed directly down onto it, to create shadows on the bottom of the pan. Roh and Gharib studied 33 bees individually for a few minutes at a time, carefully scooping them out after a few minutes to let them recover from their swimming efforts.
A paper describing what they found was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on November 18.
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"The motion of the bee's wings creates a wave that its body is able to ride forward," Gharib says. "It hydrofoils, or surfs, toward safety."
Slow-motion video revealed the source of the potentially life-saving asymmetry: rather than just flapping up and down in the water, the bee's wings pronate, or curve downward, when pushing down the water and supinate (curve upward) when pulling back up, out of the water. The pulling motion provides thrust, while the pushing motion is a recovery stroke.
In addition, the wingbeats in water are slower, with a stroke amplitude—the measure of how far their wings travel when they flap—of less than 10 degrees, as opposed to 90-120 degrees when they are flying through the air. Throughout the entire process, the dorsal (or top) side of the wing remains dry while the underside clings to the water. The water that remains attached to the underside of the wing gives the bees the extra force they use to propel themselves forward.
"Water is three orders of magnitude heavier than air, which is why it traps bees. But that weight is what also makes it useful for propulsion," Roh says.
The bees do not seem to be able to generate enough force to free themselves directly from the water, but their  motion can propel them to the edge of a pool or pond, where they can pull themselves onto dry land and fly off. Hydrofoiling is a lot more taxing for the bees than is flying, says Roh, who estimates that the bees could keep up the activity for about 10 minutes, giving them a fixed window to find the edge of the water and escape.
The motion has never been documented in other insects, and may represent a unique adaptation by bees, Roh says.
"On hot days, bee hives require water to cool off," Roh says. "So when the temperature rises, workers are sent out to gather water instead of pollen." The bees will find a water source, swallow some into a special chamber in their bodies, and then fly off. Sometimes, however, they fall in. And if they cannot free themselves, they die.
Roh and Gharib, who work in Caltech's Center for Autonomous Systems and Technologies (CAST), have already started applying their findings to their robotics research, developing a small robot that uses a similar motion to navigate the surface of water. Though labor-intensive, the motion could one day be used to generate robots capable of both flying and swimming.
The study is titled "Honeybees use their wings for water surface locomotion."
Source:phys.org

Thursday, 1 August 2019

Honour for Kolhapur-born theoretical physicist Atish Dabholkar



Until 2010, he was a professor of theoretical physics at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai.

Atish Dabholkar to lead Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics


Atish Dabholkar, a theoretical physicist from India, has been appointed as the new director of Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy.

He is currently the head of ICTP’s high energy, cosmology and astroparticle physics section. He joined the centre in 2014 on secondment from Sorbonne Universit√© and the National Center for Scientific Research, where he has been a research director since 2007. Mr. Dabholkar will take up his duties as ICTP director with the rank of Assistant Director General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). He will succeed Fernando Quevedo, who has led the centre since 2009.
“It’s an honour and a great responsibility to be chosen as ICTP’s next director. ICTP is a one-of-a-kind institution with a very high level of research and a unique global mission for international cooperation through science. It was envisioned as an international hub for excellence in science and as an anchor to build scientific capacity and a culture of science around the globe. This vision remains valid today even after five decades, but needs to be implemented keeping in mind changing realities and priorities,” he said in a statement.
Born in 1963, Mr. Dabholkar completed his school education at Gargoti in Kolhapur district. He is a graduate of the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur. He got a Ph.D in theoretical physics from Princeton University, followed by postdoctoral and research positions at Rutgers University, Harvard University, and California Institute of Technology. Until 2010, he was a professor of theoretical physics at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai, and has been a visiting professor at Stanford University and a visiting scientist at CERN.
Mr. Dabholkar is well-known for his research on string theory and quantum black holes. “Research at these new frontiers is an ongoing quest for a more complete and unified formulation of the laws of nature. The work of our founding director Abdus Salam on electroweak unification was an important milestone in this direction,” he said.
He has received many honours, including Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award (2006). He is an elected member of the Indian Academy of Science and was awarded the IIM National Leadership Award as a ‘Young Leader in Science’ in 2007 by the President of India. In 2007, he received the Chair of Excellence Award from the National Research Agency (ANR) in France. Founded in 1964 by the late Nobel Laureate, Abdus Salam, ICTP has been a driving force behind global efforts to advance scientific expertise in the developing world. Each year, more than 6,000 scientists from around the world visit ICTP for its academic, training and sabbatical opportunities. It operates under a tripartite agreement between the Italian government, International Atomic Energy Agency, and the UNESCO. It is a UNESCO category 1 institute.

source and credits: thehindu

Saturday, 27 July 2019

Nothing Is Solid & Everything Is Energy – Scientists Explain The World of Quantum Physics



It has been written about before, over and over again, but cannot be emphasized enough. The world of quantum physics is an eerie one, one that sheds light on the truth about our world in ways that challenge the existing framework of accepted knowledge.
What we perceive as our physical material world, is really not physical or material at all, in fact, it is far from it. This has been proven time and time again by multiple Nobel Prize (among many other scientists around the world) winning physicists, one of them being Niels Bohr, a Danish Physicist who made significant contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory.
“If quantum mechanics hasn’t profoundly shocked you, you haven’t understood it yet. Everything we call real is made of things that cannot be regarded as real.” – Niels Bohr
 At the turn of the nineteenth century, physicists started to explore the relationship between energy and the structure of matter. In doing so, the belief that a physical, Newtonian material universe that was at the very heart of scientific knowing was dropped, and the realization that matter is nothing but an illusion replaced it. Scientists began to recognize that everything in the Universe is made out of energy.
“Despite the unrivaled empirical success of quantum theory, the very suggestion that it may be literally true as a description of nature is still greeted with cynicism, incomprehension and even anger.” (T. Folger, “Quantum Shmantum”; Discover 22:37-43, 2001)
Quantum physicists discovered that physical atoms are made up of vortices of energy that are constantly spinning and vibrating, each one radiating its own unique energy signature. Therefore, if we really want to observe ourselves and find out what we are, we are really beings of energy and vibration, radiating our own unique energy signature -this is fact and is what quantum physics has shown us time and time again. We are much more than what we perceive ourselves to be, and it’s time we begin to see ourselves in that light. If you observed the composition of an atom with a microscope you would see a small, invisible tornado-like vortex, with a number of infinitely small energy vortices called quarks and photons. These are what make up the structure of the atom. As you focused in closer and closer on the structure of the atom, you would see nothing, you would observe a physical void. The atom has no physical structure, we have no physical structure, physical things really don’t have any physical structure! Atoms are made out of invisible energy, not tangible matter.
“Get over it, and accept the inarguable conclusion. The universe is immaterial-mental and spiritual” (1)  – Richard Conn Henry, Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University (quote taken from “the mental universe)
It’s quite the conundrum, isn’t it? Our experience tells us that our reality is made up of physical material things, and that our world is an independently existing objective one. The revelation that the universe is not an assembly of physical parts, suggested by Newtonian physics, and instead comes from a holistic entanglement of immaterial energy waves stems from the work of Albert Einstein, Max Planck and Werner Heisenberg, among others. (0)

The Role of Consciousness in Quantum Mechanics

What does it mean that our physical material reality isn’t really physical at all? It could mean a number of things, and concepts such as this cannot be explored if scientists remain within the boundaries of the only perceived world existing, the world we see. As Nikola Tesla supposedly said:
“The day science begins to study non-physical phenomena, it will make more progress in one decade than in all the previous centuries of its existence.” 
Fortunately, many scientists have already taken the leap, and have already questioned the meaning and implications of what we’ve discovered with quantum physics. One of these potential revelations is that “the observer creates the reality.”
A fundamental conclusion of the new physics also acknowledges that the observer creates the reality. As observers, we are personally involved with the creation of our own reality. Physicists are being forced to admit that the universe is a “mental” construction. Pioneering physicist Sir James Jeans wrote: “The stream of knowledge is heading toward a non-mechanical reality; the universe begins to look more like a great thought than like a great machine. Mind no longer appears to be an accidental intruder into the realm of matter, we ought rather hail it as the creator and governor of the realm of matter. (R. C. Henry, “The Mental Universe”; Nature 436:29, 2005)
One great example that illustrates the role of consciousness within the physical material world (which we know not to be so physical) is the double slit experiment. This experiment has been used multiple times to explore the role of consciousness in shaping the nature of physical reality. (2)
A double-slit optical system was used to test the possible role of consciousness in the collapse of the quantum wave-function. The ratio of the interference pattern’s double-slit spectral power to its single-slit spectral power was predicted to decrease when attention was focused toward the double-slit as compared to away from it. The study found that factors associated with consciousness, such as meditation, experience, electrocortical markers of focused attention and psychological factors such as openness and absorption, significantly correlated in predicted ways with perturbations in the double-slit interference pattern.(2)
This is just the beginning. I wrote another article earlier this year that has much more, sourced information with regards to the role of consciousness and our physical material world:

What’s The Significance?

The significance of this information is for us to wake up, and realize that we are all energy, radiating our own unique energy signature. Feelings, thoughts and emotions play a vital role, quantum physics helps us see the significance of how we all feel. If all of us are in a peaceful loving state inside, it will no doubt impact the external world around us, and influence how others feel as well.
“If you want to know the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.” – Nikola Tesla.
Studies have shown that positive emotions and operating from a place of peace within oneself can lead to a very different experience for the person emitting those emotions and for those around them. At our subatomic level, does the vibrational frequency change the manifestation of physical reality? If so, in what way? We know that when an atom changes its state, it absorbs or emits electromagnetic frequencies, which are responsible for changing its state.  Do different states of emotion, perception and feelings result in different electromagnetic frequencies? Yes! This has been proven. (3)
HERE is a great video that touches on what I am trying to get across here. We are all connected.
“Space is just a construct that gives the illusion that there are separate objects”  Dr. Quantum (source)

via: www.collective-evolution.com

Sources:

Wednesday, 10 July 2019

Scientists discover how to 'lock' heat in place using quantum mechanics

by 


Scientists discover how to 'lock' heat in place using quantum mechanics
This image shows that when the setup is rotated at 0.5 rpm, the experimental system on the left shows the hottest (white) part of the ring is fixed at the bottom after several seconds of motion. The reference on the right shows the hottest part of the ring has moved further round the ring in conjunction with its motio
A ground-breaking study conducted by researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has revealed a method of using quantum mechanical wave theories to "lock" heat into a fixed position.




Ordinarily, a source of  diffuses through a conductive material until it dissipates, but Associate Professor Cheng-Wei Qiu from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the NUS Faculty of Engineering and his team used the principle of anti-parity-time (APT) symmetry to show that it is possible to confine the heat to a small region of a metal ring without it spreading over time.
In the future, this newly demonstrated phenomenon could be used to control  in sophisticated ways and optimize efficacy in systems that need cooling. The results of the study were published on 12 April 2019 in the journal Science.
Freezing the spread of heat
"Imagine a droplet of ink in a flowing stream. After a short amount of time you would see the ink spread and flow in the direction of the current. Now imagine if that ink droplet stayed the same size and in the same position as the water flowed around it. Effectively that is what we have accomplished with the spread of heat in our experiment," explained Assoc Prof Qiu.
The experimental setup of this study is two oppositely rotating metal rings, sandwiched together with a thin layer of grease. The rotating motion of the rings act like the flow of the stream in the scenario. When heat is injected at a point in the system, the  is able to stay in position because one rotating ring is coupled to the counter-rotating ring by the principles of APT symmetry.
The conditions of this experiment are quite precise in order for it to be successful. "From quantum mechanical theory, you can calculate the velocity needed for the rings. Too slow or too fast, and you will break the condition," said Assoc Prof Qiu. When the conditions are broken, the system acts conventionally, and the heat is carried forward as the ring rotates.




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Bucking the trend
Applying the principles of APT symmetry to systems involving heat is a complete departure from the current school of thought in this area. "It's drastically different from the currently popular research topics. In this field, many groups are working on parity-time (PT) symmetry setups, and almost of them are looking at wave mechanics. This is the first time anyone has stepped out of the domain of waves, and shown that APT symmetry is applicable to diffusion-based systems such as heat," stated Assoc Prof Qiu.
This demonstration of a fixed area of heat within moving metal seems counterintuitive, as Assoc Prof Qiu admits, "Before this study, people actually thought this was a forbidden area, but we can explain all of it. It doesn't violate any laws of physics." In reality, the reason Assoc Prof Qiu and his team were able to control the heat was by introducing an extra degree of freedom into their ingenious experimental setup—the rotation of the rings
"For APT symmetry to become significant in a system, there must be some element of loss and gain within the setup—and they need to be balanced. In a traditional thermal diffusion system, APT symmetry is not consequential because there is no gain or loss degree of freedom. Hence, the mechanical rotation is the key player here," he explained.
Potential applications and next steps
Many modern technologies require the efficient removal of heat. Mechanical setups like engines, as well as computational and electrical components need to be effectively cooled. Currently, most technologies are cooled with a steady flow of liquid to take away the heat by convection.
"This experiment shows that we need to more careful when determining the flow rate and design of these systems," Assoc Prof Qiu stated. Whilst his experimental setup contained counter-rotating metal rings, the same principle could be applied to other setups in flux. "The perception is that the circulation will take away the heat simply, but it's not always necessarily so straightforward," he added.
Next, the team is looking to increase the size of their experiment. "At the moment our setup is in the range of centimetres, so we want to scale it up to the size of real motors or gearing systems. Gearing systems often have similar counter-rotating mechanisms which will generate heat, so we wish to apply theory to dissipate this heat more efficiently," Assoc Prof Qiu said.

source and credits: phys.org

Monday, 27 May 2019

A Quantum Revolution Is Coming


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credits: DEPOSITPHOTOS

AI & Big DataJayshree Pandya is Founder of Risk Group & Host of Risk Roundup.
Quantum physics, the study of the universe on an atomic scale, gives us a reference model to understand the human ecosystem in the discrete individual unit. It helps us understand how individual human behavior impacts collective systems and the security of humanity.
Metaphorically, we can see this in how a particle can act both like a particle or a wave. The concept of entanglement is at the core of much of applied quantum physics. The commonly understood definition of entanglement says that particles can be generated to have a distinct reliance on each other, despite any three-dimensional or 4-dimensional distance between the particles. What this definition and understanding imply is that even if two or more particles are physically detached with no traditional or measurable linkages, what happens to one still has a quantifiable effect on the other.
Now, individuals and entities across NGIOA are part of an entangled global system. Since the ability to generate and manipulate pairs of entangled particles is at the foundation of many quantum technologies, it is important to understand and evaluate how the principles of quantum physics translate to the survival and security of humanity.
If an individual human is seen as a single atom, is our behavior guided by deterministic laws? How does individual human behavior impact the collective human species? How is an individual representative of how collective systems, whether they be economic to security-based systems, operate?
Acknowledging this emerging reality, Risk Group initiated a much-needed discussion on Strategic Impact of Quantum Physics on Financial Industry with Joseph Firmage, Founder & Chairman at National Working Group on New Physics based in the United States, on Risk Roundup.

Quantum physics, the study of the universe on an atomic scale, gives us a reference model to understand the human ecosystem in the discrete individual unit. It helps us understand how individual human behavior impacts collective systems and the security of humanity.
Metaphorically, we can see this in how a particle can act both like a particle or a wave. The concept of entanglement is at the core of much of applied quantum physics. The commonly understood definition of entanglement says that particles can be generated to have a distinct reliance on each other, despite any three-dimensional or 4-dimensional distance between the particles. What this definition and understanding imply is that even if two or more particles are physically detached with no traditional or measurable linkages, what happens to one still has a quantifiable effect on the other.
Now, individuals and entities across NGIOA are part of an entangled global system. Since the ability to generate and manipulate pairs of entangled particles is at the foundation of many quantum technologies, it is important to understand and evaluate how the principles of quantum physics translate to the survival and security of humanity.
If an individual human is seen as a single atom, is our behavior guided by deterministic laws? How does individual human behavior impact the collective human species? How is an individual representative of how collective systems, whether they be economic to security-based systems, operate?
Acknowledging this emerging reality, Risk Group initiated a much-needed discussion on Strategic Impact of Quantum Physics on Financial Industry with Joseph Firmage, Founder & Chairman at National Working Group on New Physics based in the United States, on Risk Roundup.

source and credits: forbes
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